DIMENSION is a technology-rich simulation model for the European energy system. The years to be simulated and the temporal resolution are freely selectable. Currently, DIMENSION covers 28 European countries (European Economic Area, including the United Kingdom and Switzerland). These countries’ individual power plants and storage capacities are recorded in detail in the regularly updated internal EWI power plant database.
The energy market model optimizes the future development of power plants, renewable energies, and flexibility capacities to provide energy (in particular electricity, heat, and gaseous energy sources). In doing so, the model maps the cost-minimizing deployment and capacity expansions and the withdrawal of various technologies. In particular, the use of renewable energy sources is considered in cost minimization, taking into account the political framework conditions.
The final energy consumptions of industry, buildings and transport are integrated modularly, with the possibility of endogenously optimizing or exogenously defining transformation paths. Furthermore, Power-to-X technologies (e.g., electrolyzers) are depicted in detail. Thus, the ramp-up of hydrogen production in Europe and its deployment and possible imports from outside Europe can be co-optimized.
DIMENSION calculates the total system costs (capital stock, generation, conversion, and distribution), the near-term development of energy flows and prices, the capacities of the European electricity market, the generation mix and CO2 emissions of heat and power supply by sector, energy imports and Power-to-X, and many other essential decision parameters.
DIMENSION is continuously used and further developed in consulting and research projects. The quality of the model is further evaluated and improved in research experiments and compared with challenger models.
DIMENSION produces forecasts for the day-ahead, intraday, and balancing energy markets, grid charges, EEG levy, and other price components.
DIMENSION is the basis for investment decisions and a tool in asset valuation, e.g., for power plants and storage facilities.
DIMENSION is used to analyze different political framework conditions (CO2 trading, support mechanisms for renewables and CHP, capacity reserve, etc.) for medium and long-term scenario analyses. Thus, on the one hand, policy instruments can be evaluated, and, on the other hand, robust decisions can be derived for many possible future states.